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Bachelor of Science


Bachelor of Science is a very broad term when it comes to graduation. Science is a general term for the academic or practical study of life or materials across the universe.

It’s the knowledge and application of science that has enabled considerable developments in technology and medication possible. From placing a mobile phone in the palm of our hand to sending men into space, science and scientists have worked wonders for our everyday life and the world in general.

Why Study Science?

  • Thirst of knowledge – The obvious and most important reason to study science is to know, understand, preserve, develop, test, and advance nature’s laws. Science aims to explain and establish repeatable hard data and evidence about the mechanics of nature around us.
  • Wide range of Career Options – Science degrees can offer tremendous opportunities to work in the industry in various roles. From large pharmaceutical companies to small research labs, from forensic scientists working in the field to software designers working from a remote setting, you can choose what fits best to your interests and needs.
  • Great Value for Money – Science degrees stand as one of the best value-for-money degrees. Science graduates generally earn well above the average graduate salary. They also get more student-teacher contact time along with cutting-edge equipment and teaching methodologies.

Bachelor of Science – Academic Pathway

When most people think of science, they probably imagine a serious lab setting where a person in a white lab coat is surrounded by test tubes; while this is true for some scientists, it’s not true for others. The science includes a variety of branches and is continually changing.

Sciences possess many unique disciplines and areas of study, but they are generally divided into three academic fields: Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. Biologists study living things, Chemists study the properties of substances and how they react with each other, and Physicists are concerned with exploring the forces in the universe. No matter which science degree you choose to pursue, it will most likely involve at least one or all of the above three.

There are multiple options available for academic training in the field, from online courses to extensive Ph.D.-level research. In most cases, there might be minimum CGPA requirements (vary from program to program). For some master-level degrees, an internship or other hands-on experience is required.

Online Programs / Certifications

Certifications can be done at various stages in your career, either before or after your degree programs. The primary benefit of online programs is that students can place online classes into their schedules.

Whether an individual is interested in studying on a broad level or studying microscopically with one particular focus, Short online courses or certificates can be a stepping stone to further one’s education in a discipline or combination of disciplines.

Coursework in natural sciences, for example, can branch into astronomy, anthropology, ecology, and options to study physical chemistry and environmental law.

Online course providers such as Coursera, edX, and others offer both free and paid courses that can help you acquire basic-level knowledge.

There are thousands of courses available online for you to choose from; these include courses like

Online Science Courses

Science Literacy

Science literacy is online course offered by the University of Alberta – will teach you about the process of science, how to think critically, differentiate science from pseudoscience, how indigenous wisdom can inform science, understand and design a scientific study, etc.

Introduction to Forensic Science

Introduction to Forensic Science, is offered on Coursera in collaboration with Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, is an eight-week course to explain the scientific principles and techniques behind forensic scientists’ work.

Genes and the Human Condition

Genes and the Human Condition (From Behavior to Biotechnology) is also an online course that caters to understanding the fundamental concepts of genomics and biotechnology and their implications for human biology, evolution, medicine, social policy, and individual life path choices in the 21st century.

MicroMaster’s Program is a certificate granted to learners by EdX for completing a series of graduate-level online courses. MicroMaster’s programs are a series of graduate-level courses from top universities. It is designed to offer learners a pathway to an advanced degree and count as credit toward completing a Master’s degree program. Learners who successfully earn this MicroMaster’s program certificate may apply for admission to a Master’s program, and if accepted, the MicroMaster’s program certificate will count towards the degree.

Costs for acquiring a Certificate in Sciences can vary based on the institution’s location and the length of time expected to complete the certificate program. It is best to research the school of interest before applying to clarify their particular program’s cost.

Bachelor of Science (BSc)

Enrolling in a BSc degree program renders to making a significant investment in one’s professional career. Suppose you want to further your technical and scientific knowledge in computer science, nursing, mathematics, biochemistry, physics, etc. In that case, a Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree is the ideal path to take.

The Bachelor of Science (BSc) is a 3-4 year undergraduate degree. Students choose major subjects according to their interests. A bachelor of science degree tends to focus on a specific scientific or technical subject and requires more credits directly linked to that major. Still, many institutes now give students the flexibility to combine the major with other subjects.

By undertaking a scientific discipline at the degree level, you’ll have the opportunity to access research resources such as robotics, equipment, microbiology, molecular biology labs, mass spectrometry suites, and more.

You may start seeking solutions to the biggest challenges facing science, such as climate change and food scarcity. Or for instance, if you study health sciences, you may work at clinical trials and develop life-saving vaccines.

Contemporary BSc degrees are also expected to infuse science and technology. So by studying with a modern university, you’ll get the opportunity to tie your practice to new technologies.

The variety of different Bachelor of Science programs can be overwhelming; advancements in science and technology specialized fields are being developed and added to the list. The following represent a few of many subject areas (majors) available worldwide for a BSc. Degree.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Anatomy

Anatomy is a diverse, vibrant, and visual subject. A bachelor’s in Anatomical Sciences will enable you to study different species’ structures, including humans, from the whole body to the tissue, cellular, and sub-cellular level. You will learn to explore the relationship between the structure of the body and its functions. Students can choose to study the same from microscopic to macroscopic levels.

Career Opportunities available to such graduates range from health professions to research and teaching. Students can also opt for technical work in medical or agricultural laboratories. Some graduates can take sales, marketing, and research positions with pharmaceutical, medical, or agri-business companies.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the base for the latest, cutting edge progress and discoveries in biotechnology and molecular medicine. Molecular medicine is poised to revolutionize human health.

After a BSc. in Bio-chemistry, one can have career prospects in research, product development, marketing, forensics, public health, bioinformatics, agribusiness, patent law, science policy, publishing, or teaching.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Botany

Botany can be a fascinating and challenging degree. Botany focuses on various aspects of plant ecology, allowing students to participate in the natural environment’s hands-on study.

Botany graduates are in high demand in industries such as biotechnology, horticulture, tourism, and agriculture.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of substances, what they are made of, how they interact, and what role they play in living things. A Bachelors in Chemistry focuses on the scientific analysis of the composition and behavior of matter, including its micro and macrostructure, chemical change processes, and the theoretical description and laboratory simulations.

You’ll learn how to synthesize new chemicals that could have a profound effect on people’s lives. You could assist with the discovery of new drugs, agrichemicals, and sources of energy. As a Qualified chemist, you can work in industries involving chemicals, food, textiles, paints, plastics, pharmaceuticals, etc. You can work in various job settings such as research or quality control.

Chemistry graduates work in leading roles in agriculture, horticulture, water quality control, and chemical, biochemical, or medical research units. Chemistry graduates can work on pollution monitoring, water purification, and forensics involving criminal case investigations.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Computer Science

It is a rapidly growing field and forms the basis for all information technology. Computer literacy has become most important in modern society.

Computer scientists analyze, design, and implement computer algorithms and computer systems. Graduates in this field are at work worldwide in every aspect of commerce, government, education, research, and media in a variety of exciting roles as programmers, software engineers, systems analysts, network managers, consultants and advisers, web programmers, interface designers, and database administrators.

Other exciting career options include:

  • Making CGI movies
  • Developing software for driver-less vehicles
  • Writing control software for Formula-1
  • Designing computer games
  • Programming the latest high-performance computers

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Economics

Economics is the social science that studies how people interact with value, particularly the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

With a BSc in Economics, you will learn to examine topics critical to human well-being such as unemployment, economic growth, inflation, poverty, income distribution, and resource allocation in education, health, business, and the environment.

Economic Graduates can work in all areas, from banks to large commercial industries (research and management consultancy). Economists are also in high demand for their work in public sector departments such as Ministries of Economic Development, Foreign Affairs and Trade, health, etc.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Energy Science and Technology

a Bachelor of Science (BSc) in Energy Science and Technology or a Bachelor of Applied Science in Energy Management would equip students with the technical knowledge and problem-solving skills to pursue successful careers in this rapidly changing and crucially important area.

Graduates can find successful and fulfilling careers in a diverse range of energy areas, including; designing and implementing renewable energy supply solutions, technology research and development, advising on or developing energy and sustainability policy for identifying and implementing energy efficiency and sustainability measures for commercial or public sector organizations.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Food Science

A degree in Food Science combines practical application of basic science (Chemistry, Microbiology, Biology) training with a product, consumer, and market focus.

Graduating students work for national or international food companies; specializing in dairy, confectionery, brewing, fruit and vegetables, seafood, or any other foodstuff.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Genetics

Genetics is a rapidly-progressing science, a central theme of modern biology, and an indispensable component of most biological research. A Genetics degree comprises course work in Anatomy, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology and Immunology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Women’s and Children’s Health, and Zoology.

Genetics’s degree gives you a wide range of marketable skills suitable for employment in biologically-based industries, research organizations, and government departments.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Geography

Geography is a blend of social and environmental sciences concerned with studying the earth’s physical features, atmosphere, and human activity. It affects and is affected by these.

By studying Geography, you could, for example, become involved in anything from designing new parks and gardens to monitoring changes in glaciers, mapping natural hazards, and developing strategies for the tourism industry.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Mathematics

Candidates who have a keen interest in Mathematics subjects can pursue B.Sc. Mathematics course. Mathematics looks at the distribution of prime numbers, geometric figures’ properties, how dependent variables change, and what happens when you add up infinitely many terms.

Studying these ideas lays the foundation for using mathematics to solve real-life problems. The Actuarial Profession, for example, uses mathematical and statistical modeling to predict future events that will have a financial impact on an organization.

Mathematics graduates, especially those with a well-rounded background in mathematical, statistical, and computer skills, have a qualification that integrates perfectly into the modern, technology-based world.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Microbiology

A graduate-level study in Microbiology provides insights into the unseen world of microbes and the immune system. The range of job opportunities continues to expand as modern developments in biotechnology, aquaculture, molecular biology, microbial genetics, immunology, and medicine have increased the demand for graduates.

Graduates with Microbiology and Immunology qualifications find employment in a wide variety of areas. Along with the traditional teaching and research areas, graduates work in medical or veterinary laboratories and biotechnological and agricultural industries.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Oceanography

With a BSc. Oceanography degree, you’ll study marine ecosystems and ocean processes. Students learn to use the latest technologies in molecular biology, high-performance computing, and automated sampling to address the marine environment’s key challenges.

Job Opportunities for Oceanography graduates range from marine biologists to marine engineers. Your career path may lead you to assess the effects of tsunamis, Conduct oceanographic and Antarctic research at a university or government agency, etc.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the science of drugs and their effect on living systems. Pharmacology links together chemistry, physiology, and pathology. Pharmacologists work with other biomedical science disciplines, including neuroscience, molecular and cell biology, immunology, etc.

Bachelor’s in pharmacology graduate usually pursue careers as biomedical scientists, pharmacologists, and clinical biochemistry specialists. More indirectly related jobs that graduates have pursued include being a toxicologist, patent specialist, or even a scientific writer.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Physics

Physics is the study of matter and motion, concerned with energy, entropy, and force. You’ll be primarily concerned with the laws of Physics – a set of scientific rules that underpin how the universe works. Branches of Physics include Quantum Physics, Aerodynamics, Nuclear Physics, and Thermodynamics.

As a physicist, you could work in high-tech areas such as electronics, laser technology, smart materials, healthcare, analytics, or telecommunications. You might find yourself working for a company developing new products or services.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Physiology

A degree in Physiology is an entry towards qualifications in health-related professions: audiology, medical technology, medicine, pharmacy, and physiotherapy are some examples. The importance of Physiology is recognized by the fact there is a particular Nobel Prize category for Physiology and Medicine.

Some Physiology graduates go on to higher degrees in Physiology and become full-time researchers and academics. Other graduates can work in roles where employers are looking for specific human biology knowledge (laboratory research technicians and even advisors to TV and movie productions).

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Statistics

Statisticians use computational skills, statistical knowledge, quantitative abilities, and communications skills to help make decisions. The study of statistics is different than other traditional math programs. Instead of developing accurate solutions to complex algorithms, statisticians develop skills to build meaningful estimates of the real-world phenomenon.

A BSc in Statistics prepares students for rewarding careers as actuaries for insurance companies.

Bachelor of science- B.Sc. Zoology

Zoology is one of the most interdisciplinary subjects. A degree in Zoology opens the door to a wide variety of jobs and career options.

There are opportunities in government departments and ministries such as the Department of Conservation and the Ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture, Forestry, and Environment. In these areas, Zoology graduates are involved with research.

As mentioned, options for BSc. are not limited to the above subjects. Other majors available are Exercise and Sport Science, Ecology, Geology, Human Nutrition, Information Science, Land Planning and Development, Neuroscience, etc.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA, Stanford University USA, Peking University, China, Oxford University UK, Cambridge University UK, Toronto University, Canada, Kyoto University, Japan, and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore are some of the top-ranking universities for science education.

Cost / Common Requirements

Each university can have its own set of eligibility criteria and admission procedures. Studying science at university varies depending on the course and the institute, so this is something you’ll need to keep checking for every new course.

In many cases, they ask for two or more core science subjects like Biology, Chemistry, Physics, or Math.

A standard full-time study load is usually 30 credit hours per year. Typically, to graduate with a degree, universities expect students to complete 120-130 credit hours for a Bachelor’s degree.

The yearly tuition cost for a bachelor’s program is £9,250 per year in the UK (£22,000 for international students), around 17,500 CAD to 52,000 CAD per annum in Canadian universitiesand $13000 to $23,000 per semester in the United States.

How much do science graduates Earn?

A science graduate’s salary depends on several factors, such as your major and the job role you ultimately take, your experience and career phase, etc. However, on average, if you have a bachelor’s degree, you can expect to earn $52,200 in the US or £32,804 in the UK. The average salary after a master’s degree is $78,837.

Masters and Post-Graduate

Students who pursue a Master’s degree spend one to two years in their chosen field of study. A Master of Science is a postgraduate degree offered by most universities worldwide. Some of the most common abbreviations are M.Sc., M.S., Sc.M., S.M.

Masters of Science focus on disciplines like Sciences, Engineering, Technology, Mathematics, Medicine, and some Social Sciences, such as Finance, Psychology, Sociology, and others. To earn an M.Sc. degree, you usually have to write a scientific thesis, but this depends on the study program type.

Ph.D. Science is a 3 to 5 years doctorate level course, which students from MSc or M.Tech background can pursue. It involves researching any one of the Science specializations. Like most Ph.D. programs submitting the research thesis at the end of the course to earn the a must.

Candidates acquiring a master’s degree or a doctorate in science have multiple job opportunities in almost every employment sector, including colleges and universities, research labs, government organizations, and many more.

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